Rijeka – Alpine Wall

In November 1920, a treaty was signed in Rapallo, Italy, between the Italian and Yugoslav kingdoms with the purpose of regulate the border between them. In 1931, fascist Italy began the construction of an approximately 1850-kilometre long line of defence called Vallo Alpino. It bordered France to the west via Switzerland and Austria down to the eastern border with Yugoslavia. It was built like many other lines of defence around Europe at a time when all states were preparing for war. However, during the war, with the exceptions of a few insignificant fightings, no major battles took place at the line. On a hill above Rijeka in present-day Croatia, ruins remain of the line. At the time of the construction this area belonged to Italy and bordered to Yuogslavia. After the war, Rijeka and Istria became part of Yugoslavia and thus this former defense line lost its purpose.

Current status: Partly preserved/demolished (2023).

Location: 45°20'37.78" N, 14°26'58.26" E

Get there: Car.

My comment:

It can be tricky to find it because the roads goes everywhere and nowhere. And the GPS does not necessarily take the easiest route or the most navigable route. But once you arrive you can park your car and follow one of the paths that go into the forest and lead to several bunkers, some with majestic views of the valley eastwards.

Follow up in books: Pavlowitch, Steven: Hitler’s New Disorder: The Second World War in Yugoslavia (2008).