Outside Kiviöli, in northern Estonia, the Nazis established in the autumn 1943 a satellite camp for Vaivara. The camp was set up next to an area where oil shale was broken, which was used as synthetic fuel for oil fuel (the business is still there). This was the main reason for the establishment of the camp. Lithuanian Jews were mainly in the camp after being evacuated from ghettos in Lithuania earlier in the year. The camp began to be evacuated in the summer of 1944 when the Soviet Red Army approached and the prisoners were forced out on so-called death marches to camps further west. by boat from Tallinn to the Stutthof concentration camp in Poland.

Current status: Demolished with monument (2011).

Location: 59°21'32.30"N 26°57'11.61"E

Get there: Car.

My comment:

For the prisoners who sat in camps like Kiviöli and other more or less totally unknown camps, life was in no way better than for the prisoners who sat in more known camps like Auschwitz, Sachsenhausen, Dachau and others. Many times it could be even worse when the working conditions in such satellite camps were disastrous from 1943 until the end of the war. Sometimes the deaths that occurred in the satellite camps are counted in the mother camp statistics which in a way then becomes misleading how many died and where they died.

Follow up in books: Kogon, Eugen: The Theory and Practice of Hell: The German Concentration Camps and the System Behind Them (2006).