Outside Kiviöli, in northern Estonia, the Nazis established a satellite camp for Vaivara in autumn 1943. The camp was set up next to an area where oil shale was mined, which was used as synthetic fuel for oil fuel (the business is still there). This was the main reason for the establishment of the camp. Mainly lithuanian Jews were imprisoned after being evacuated from ghettos in Lithuania earlier in the year. The camp began to be evacuated in the summer of 1944 when the Soviet Red Army approached. The prisoners were forced out on Death marches towards camps further west. Some by boat from Tallinn to Stutthof concentration camp in Poland.

Current status: Demolished with monument (2011).

Location: 59°21'32.30"N 26°57'11.61"E

Get there: Car.

My comment:

For the prisoners who sat in camps like Kiviöli and other more or less totally unknown camps, life was in no way better than for the prisoners who sat in more known camps like Auschwitz, Sachsenhausen, Dachau and others. Many times it could be even worse when the working conditions in such satellite camps were disastrous from 1943 until the end of the war. The deaths in satellite camps are statistically often counted as deaths in the main camp.

Follow up in books: Kogon, Eugen: The Theory and Practice of Hell: The German Concentration Camps and the System Behind Them (2006).